Sensitivity Analysis of Ion Channel Conductance on Myocardial Electromechanical Delay: Computational Study

Ali Ikhsanul Qauli, Aroli Marcellinus, Ki Moo Lim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


It is well known that cardiac electromechanical delay (EMD) can cause dyssynchronous heart failure (DHF), a prominent cardiovascular disease (CVD). This work computationally assesses the conductance variation of every ion channel on the cardiac cell to give rise to EMD prolongation. The electrical and mechanical models of human ventricular tissue were simulated, using a population approach with four conductance reductions for each ion channel. Then, EMD was calculated by determining the difference between the onset of action potential and the start of cell shortening. Finally, EMD data were put into the optimized conductance dimensional stacking to show which ion channel has the most influence in elongating the EMD. We found that major ion channels, such as L-type calcium (CaL), slow-delayed rectifier potassium (Ks), rapid-delayed rectifier potassium (Kr), and inward rectifier potassium (K1), can significantly extend the action potential duration (APD) up to 580 ms. Additionally, the maximum intracellular calcium (Cai) concentration is greatly affected by the reduction in channel CaL, Ks, background calcium, and Kr. However, among the aforementioned major ion channels, only the CaL channel can play a superior role in prolonging the EMD up to 83 ms. Furthermore, ventricular cells with long EMD have been shown to inherit insignificant mechanical response (in terms of how strong the tension can grow and how far length shortening can go) compared with that in normal cells. In conclusion, despite all variations in every ion channel conductance, only the CaL channel can play a significant role in extending EMD. In addition, cardiac cells with long EMD tend to have inferior mechanical responses due to a lack of Cai compared with normal conditions, which are highly likely to result in a compromised pump function of the heart.

Original languageEnglish
Article number697693
JournalFrontiers in Physiology
Publication statusPublished - 27 Aug 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • action potential duration
  • cardiac arrhythmia
  • computational simulation
  • electromechanical delay
  • myocardial action potential


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