Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidants Activity from Citronella Grass Extract (Cymbopogon nardus L.)

Rofiatun Solekha, Hery Purnobasuki, Ni Nyoman Tri Puspaningsih, Putri Ayu Ika Setiyowati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Cymbopogon nardus L. is a rhizome plant that is widely used as traditional medicine. This research aimed to identify how the secondary metabolites of citronella grass including stems, leaves, and roots and other contents like the antioxidant and flavonoids compared to the ordinary citronella and reeds. Materials and Methods: GCMS (Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy) method was used to screen secondary metabolites along with methanol solvent. Then, the compounds could be identified through the existing library. Furthermore, DPPH and flavonoid test with aluminum chloride were used to analyze antioxidants. Result: indicated that secondary metabolites produced in Cymbopogon nardus L. stems were elemol, rosifolius, and ethyl oleate. In the root, it was found elemol, 1-Dodecamine, N,N-dimethyl-(CAS), 1-Tetradecanamine, N,N-dimethyl (CAS), while in the leaves it was found elemol, 9,2-octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester, (E,E)-(CAS), 1-dodecanamine, N,N-dimethy;l-(CAS). The highest level of flavonoid was found in the Cymbopogon nardus of 4%, in the Cimbopogon citrasus’ stems of 2.84%, and in the Imperata cylindrica leaves of 1.28%. The highest antioxidant activity was found in Cymbopogon nardus of 79.5 µg/mL followed by Cimbopogon citrasus of 58.4 µg/mL and then the third was in Imperata cylindrica of 43.7 µg/mL. Conclusion: The content of secondary metabolites especially elemol is found in stems, roots, and leaves. The Cymbopogon nardus stem has the highest level of flavonoid and antioxidant activities among ordinary lemongrass and Imperata cylindrica.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)298-305
Number of pages8
JournalIndian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2024


  • Antioxidants
  • Cymbopogon nardus
  • Flavonoids
  • Secondary metabolites


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