Rubbing cacao bean extract in improving microhardness enamel on dental bleaching

Made Shintya Danaswari, R. Mohammad Yogiartono, Priyawan Rachmadi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Bleaching methods have been developed using peroxide compounds as bleaching material. The process of bleaching agent such as hydrogen peroxide works by forming unpaired electrons or what is called Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Purpose: to determine the effect of cocoa bean extract containing theobromine in inhibiting the decrease in microhardness that occurs after the application of bleaching material. Methods: This type of research is experimental laboratories using the Experimental Pre and Posttest Only Group Design. The sample of this study was 27 bovine incisive tooth enamel taken from the abattoir. The data obtained were analyzed by repaired ANOVA test and continued with Turkey’s HSD test. Result: The value of the average difference in enamel surface hardness between the control and treatment concentrations of 15% was 10.99; between the control group and the extract of the cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) concentration of 25% is equal to 31.94. Conclusion: this research is the extract of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) concentrations of 15%, 25% and 35% can increase enamel hardness after the bleaching process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1579-1584
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020


  • Bleaching
  • Cacao bean
  • Microhardness


Dive into the research topics of 'Rubbing cacao bean extract in improving microhardness enamel on dental bleaching'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this