BACKGROUND: Type 1 leprosy reaction is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction caused by increased response of cellular-mediated immunity to Mycobacterium leprae. Manifestations include skin and nerve lesions, edema, and permanent disabilities. There are several risk factors that should be recognized to prevent disabilities. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of risk factors to the occurrence of type 1 leprosy reaction in leprosy patients treated at the Outpatient Clinic of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital. METHODS: This study was an analytical study with retrospective observational study design. Data were secondary from the medical records of leprosy patients at the Outpatient Clinic of Dr. Soetomo General Hospital from January 2017 to December 2019. RESULTS: Out of 364 patients in the Outpatient Clinic, 190 (52.2%) had leprosy without a reaction and 65 (17.9%) had type 1 reaction. Analysis showed that age, leprosy type, and treatment regimen were significantly associated with the incidence of type 1 reaction (p = 0.023; 0.003 and 0.004, respectively), with the leprosy type as the most dominant risk factor. Age 15–34 years old; leprosy types BB, BL, and BT; and the MB MDTL therapeutic regimen are risk factors for the occurrence of type I leprosy reaction. CONCLUSION: There is a statistically significant correlation between the risk factor and the occurrence of type 1 leprosy reaction in leprosy patient. The risk factor that has significant correlation is age 15–34 years; leprosy types BB, BL, and BT; and the MB MDTL therapeutic regimen. The most significant risk factor for the occurrence of type 1 leprosy reaction from our study is the type of leprosy (BB, BL, and BT).
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences|
|Publication status||Published - 10 Jan 2021|
- Cellular-mediated immunity
- Mycobacterium leprae
- Type 1 reaction