Risk factors of tuberculosis infection among health care workers: A meta-analysis

Septyani Prihatiningsih, Jonny Karunia Fajar, Fredo Tamara, Aditya Indra Mahendra, Chrisandi Yusuf Rizqiansyah, Oktavia Rahayu Adianingsih, Tjipto Suwandi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Backgrounds: Health care workers (HCWs) are globally known to have high risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection while risk factors of TB infections among HCWs are still inconclusive. Objectives: To perform a meta-analysis in effort to identify risk factors of TB infection among HCWs. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted between February and July 2019. Papers were searched in Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of science and information of interest were extracted. The correlation and effect estimation were analyzed using random or fixed effect model. Results: A total of 12 studies consisting of 2871 cases and 15,673 controls were included and six risk factors were available for meta-analysis. Cumulative calculation found that age, working duration, and types of job were significant risk factor of TB infection while gender, active TB contact, and types of workplace were not associated significantly with TB infection among HCWs. Our pooled data revealed that decreased risk of TB infection was observed in age less than 30 years (age < 30 years vs. age ≥ 30 years) and working duration less than five years (working duration < 5 years vs. ≥5 years). Being more than 40 years, working more than 10 years, and being physicians increased the risk of TB infection significantly compared to age ≤40 years, working duration ≤10 years, and other job types, respectively. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis has identified the significant risk factors of TB infection among HCWs. Our results may be useful for establishing future TB prevention program among HCWs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-129
Number of pages9
JournalIndian Journal of Tuberculosis
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020


  • Health care workers
  • Meta-analysis
  • Risk factor
  • Tuberculosis


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