Risk factors, hematological and biochemical profile associated with colic in Delman horses in Gresik, Indonesia

Muhammad Thohawi Elziyad Purnama, Dodit Hendrawan, Arya Pradana Wicaksono, Faisal Fikri, Agus Purnomo, Shekhar Chhetri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Horses are herd animals that have been domesticated in the last century. In several countries, an overview of risk factors and clinical evaluation in horses with colic has not been well-described. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors and hematological profiles in horses associated with colic in Gresik, East Java, Indonesia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed during April - October 2019. A total of 115 horses were diagnosed based on physical examination, clinical symptoms, and rectal examination. A questionnaire was asked to the horse-owners to analyze the risk factors while the clinical examination was performed and blood samples were collected for pre-treatment and 14 days post-treatment. Hematological profile was evaluated from a whole blood sample. Serum cortisol, plasma epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations were also evaluated after separating the aliquots. Results: Of the 115 horses, 96 were diagnosed with colic. The horses with colic showed a significant association between cases with gender (p<0.021), breed (p<0.000), wheat bran feeding (p<0.015), concentrate feeding (p<0.003), anthelmintics administration (p<0.000), gastrointestinal parasites (p<0.000), dental diseases (p<0.024), previous exposure to colic (p<0.000), body condition score (p<0.000), and access to water per day (p<0.000). Based on whole blood and serum evaluation, there were ameliorated significantly on the hematological profile (p<0.01), serum cortisol (p<0.05), and plasma epinephrine (p<0.01) at 14 days post-treatment. Conclusion: This study has identified factors associated with colic in Delman horses. The study provides crucial information to investigate cases of colic and to contribute the development of healthcare strategies during treatment and clinical evaluation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number950
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Colic
  • Delman horses
  • Domesticated animals
  • Gresik
  • Hematological profiles
  • Risk factors


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