Risk factors for psychological impact and social stigma among people facing COVID 19: A systematic review

Nursalam Nursalam, Tintin Sukartini, Diah Priyantini, Dluha Mafula, Ferry Efendi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a world health crisis contributing to impact people's fears, anxiety and psychological problems. This review study aimed to identify factors with psychological impact and social stigma among people. A systematic review searched five electronic databases (Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, CINAHL and ProQuest) for previous studies using a cross-sectional or quasi-experimental design published between March and April 2020. The Centre for Review and Dissemination and the Joanna Briggs Institute Guideline used for assess quality and Prisma checklist for guided this review. Title, abstract, full-text and methodology were assessed for the eligibility of the studies. Data tabulation and narrative analysis of study findings was performed. We found eleven studies which met inclusion criteria in the review. Included studies were divided into two broad thematic areas regarding COVID-19: factors related to psychology (n=7) and social stigma (n=3) and 1 study of both. The factors contributed in psychology and social stigma studies are mostly quasi-experiment and cross-sectional. The average number of participants were more than one thousand overall for every study and discussed psychological impact and social stigma related factors. Factors contributing to psychological impact were age, gender, education background, economic, support system, health condition and source information., whilst factors contributing to social stigma were environmental, history of accompanying chronic diseases, discrimination, self-isolation and people's perceptions of the affected area.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1022-1028
Number of pages7
JournalSystematic Reviews in Pharmacy
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020


  • COVID-19
  • Psychological factors
  • Social stigma


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