Introduction: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a hospital-acquired infection in mechanical ventilation for more than two consecutive days, resulting in increased mortality and treatment costs. This study aimed to analyse the risk factors and clinical outcomes of neonatal with ventilator associated pneumonia in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods: A case-control study was conducted on neonates who had mechanical ventilators installed for more than two consecutive days, from January 2020 to December 2021, at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya. The risk factors studied were duration of stay in the NICU, reintubation, duration of ventilation before VAP, rate of prematurity, low birth weight, enteral feeding, and underlying disease. The clinical outcomes studied were the duration of hospital stay and the total ventilation duration. Results: The study subjects were 135 neonates consisting of 45 cases of VAP and 90 non-VAP. Significant risk factors were duration of NICU stay (p<0.001), duration of ventilation before VAP (p=0.002), and rate of prematurity (p=0.024). Multivariate analysis found no independent risk factors for VAP. Hospital stay duration (p<0.001) and ventilation duration were significantly correlated with the incidence of VAP (p<0.001). Conclusion: Risk factors for neonatal VAP were the duration of NICU stay, duration of ventilation prior to VAP occurrence, and degree of prematurity. The impact of VAP was longer duration of hospitalisation and duration of ventilation.
- neonatal intensive care unit
- ventilator-associated pneumonia