Return migration of nurses: A concept analysis

Ferry Efendi, Anna Kurniati, Eileen Savage, Nursalam Nursalam, Ah Yusuf, Kusnanto Kusnanto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Return migration is a complex, challenging phenomenon and to date it remains a concept that is not well understood. A concept analysis would help to clarify what is meant by return migration. This paper aims to report on an analysis of the concept of return migration of nurses. Design: Concept analysis using the Walker and Avant approach. Data Sources: Google Scholar, Pubmed, EBSCO, JSTOR and Web of Science databases were searched without a timeframe. Twenty-one articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included. Method: This study employs eight steps of Walker and Avant’s method to conduct the concept analysis. Results: Return migration of nurses can be defined by five attributes: the motivation and decisions of migrant nurse, return as human right, resource mobilisation, reintegration and return itineraries. Antecedents of return migration include the economic, social, geographical, political, family and life cycle that comprise the cause and effect framework. With regards to return migration, the consequences are beneficial or detrimental depend on the point of view migrant nurses, source country, receiving country, nursing profession and country health system. Empirical referents have been identified and support potential area to undertake a research on return migration. Conclusion: This concept analysis has clarified current understandings and enhance the clarity of return migration concept. It recognises the centrality of return as a component in migration stage that needs a comprehensive approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-203
Number of pages5
JournalIndian Journal of Public Health Research and Development
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2018


  • Brain gain
  • Concept analysis
  • Nurse migration
  • Return migration


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