Reliability and validity study of the Indonesian Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS) among college students

Ira Nurmala, Siti Rahayu Nadhiroh, Iqbal Pramukti, Laila Wahyuning Tyas, Afina Puspita Zari, Mark D. Griffiths, Chung Ying Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Background/Objective: Smartphone addiction, smartphone dependence, and compulsive smartphone use all describe similar phenomena that can cause problems in everyday daily life in many countries worldwide. Most scholars agree that it is the applications on smartphones that individuals have problems with rather than the smartphone itself. For this reason, smartphone application-based addiction is an issue of concern and one instrument has been specifically developed to assess this risk, namely, the Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS). Although the SABAS has been translated into a number of languages, it has not been translated or validated into Indonesian. Methods: The SABAS was translated into Bahasa Indonesian utilizing a cross-cultural method to ensure its linguistic validity. The linguistic validity of the Indonesian SABAS was ensured using international standard translation guidelines. Moreover, reliability and validity testing of the translated Indonesian SABAS were carried out using Cronbach's α, McDonald's ω, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and correlations with psychometric scales assessing psychological distress and nomophobia. Results: Using a sample of 458 participants (mean age = 22.46 years), reliability tests showed that the Indonesian SABAS was acceptable (Cronbach α = 0.74; McDonald's ω = 0.79). Construct validity of the Indonesian SABAS was supported by satisfactory CFA fit indices; concurrent validity supported by good correlations with psychological distress (r = 0.50) and nomophobia (r = 0.61). Conclusions: The Indonesian version of SABAS is valid and reliable to be used for assessing the risk of smartphone application-based addiction in college students.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere10403
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • Good health and wellbeing
  • Nomophobia
  • Psychometric testing
  • Smartphone application-based addiction scale (SABAS)
  • Smartphone dependence


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