Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in a child with three symptoms, which include inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness that may persist into adulthood for some conditions. Parenting style is thought to be one part that determines the risk of ADHD in children. This study aims to analyse the relationship between parenting styles and the risk of ADHD in children. Methods: Employing a cross-sectional design, this study was conducted in Surabaya from November 2020 to January 2021. The respondents of the study were parents who had children at risk of ADHD with a total of 55 samples recruited using the purposive sampling technique. The questionnaires used are the demographic questionnaire, Abbreviated Conners Rating Scale (ACRS), and the Parenting Style Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (KPAA), which were filled out online by the respondents. The data were processed and analysed using the bivariate analysis test, Pearson’s chi-squared test, which has a significant value if the P-value < 0.05. Results: The majority of the parents used the authoritative style (94.5%). There was a significant relationship between parenting style and the risk of ADHD in children with P < 0.001 for authoritarian and permissive styles and P = 0.005 for an authoritative style. Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between parenting style and the risk of ADHD in children. This indicates the importance of early diagnosis of ADHD and treating the children with ADHD in the context of family environment, especially from parenting style.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)152-159
Number of pages8
JournalMalaysian Journal of Medical Sciences
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • child well-being
  • children
  • elementary school
  • parenting style


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