The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a recent, ongoing global concern that has affected >200 countries worldwide. Numerous cases of COVID-19 have been reported. The confirmed cases of COVID-19 have increased unexpectedly and continuously to 1,051,635 and the confirmed deaths have reached up to 56,985 on April 4, 2020. COVID-19 is a novel disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, and there are currently no vaccines or drugs available for its prevent or treatment. The whole genome of SARS-CoV-2 was first identified in January, 2020 during the spread of COVID-19. A number of researchers are determining the characteristics of this virus in order to develop vaccines, drugs and proper prevention steps with which to attenuate the spread of COVID-19. The present review aimed to discuss the characteristics and prevention strategies of COVID-19. The response from the public health perspective is important to prevent the further escalation of the COVID-19 pandemic through communities. This is based on the characteristics of COVID-19, not only of the virus itself, but also of the infected host, such as the level of illness, symptoms, vulnerable groups (age, sex and health status) and fatality rates. There are several public health interventions which may be used to combat COVID-19, namely, i) social and physical distancing, travel restrictions, self-quarantine and lockdown; ii) personal hygiene and good sanitation, such as the washing of hands, covering of the mouth and nose while coughing or sneezing and spraying disinfectants on surroundings; iii) boosting immunity by the consumption of nutritious food, getting sufficient rest and taking supplements or vitamins; iv) case detection, contact tracing and mass testing; and v) vaccine development. The understanding of COVID-19 characteristics and appropriate prevention strategies may suppress the rapid and extensive spread of COVID-19.
- Host infection