Psychometric properties of the Indonesian version of the nursing home survey on patient safety culture

Rista Fauziningtyas, Chong Mei Chan, Tan Maw Pin, Inge Dhamanti, Graeme D. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: The development of resident safety culture in nursing homes (NH) represents a major challenge for governments and NH owners, with a requirement for suitable tools to assess safety culture. Indonesia currently lacks suitable safety cultures scales for NH. Objectives: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the translated Indonesian version of the Nursing Home Survey on Patient Safety Culture (NHSOPSC-INA). Methods: This study was a cross-sectional survey conducted using NHSOPSC-INA. A total of 258 participants from 20 NH in Indonesia were engaged. Participants included NH managers, caregivers, administrative staff, nurses and support staff with at least junior high school education. The SPSS 23.0 was used for descriptive data analysis and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) estimation. The AMOS (version 22) was used to perform confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the questionnaire's dimensional structure. Results: The NHSOPSC CFA test originally had 12 dimensions with 42 items and was modified to eight dimensions with 26 items in the Indonesian version. The deleted dimensions were ‘Staffing’ (4 items), ‘Compliance with procedure’ (3 items), ‘Training and skills’ (3 items), ‘non-punitive response to mistakes’ (4 items) and ‘Organisational learning’ (2 items). The subsequent analysis revealed an accepted model with 26 NHSOPSC-INA items (root mean square error of approximation = 0.091, comparative fit index = 0.815, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.793, CMIN = 798.488, df = 291, CMIN/Df = 2.74, GFI = 0.782, AGFI = 0.737, p < 0.0001) and a factor loading value of 0.538–0.981. Expert feedback confirmed the relevance of the instrument items (content validity index [CVI] = 0.942). Conclusion: The modified NHSPOSC-INA model with eight dimensions (26 items) fits the data set in the context of Indonesian NH services. Implications for practice: The NHSPOSC-INA is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing staff perceptions of NH resident safety culture in Indonesia. The questionnaire can now be used to evaluate interventions for resident safety in Indonesian NH.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12553
JournalInternational journal of older people nursing
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


  • nursing homes
  • older adult
  • reliability
  • safety culture
  • validity


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