Protective Effect of Red Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) Pods against Sodium Nitrite-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih, Adamu Ayubu Mwendolwa, Dwi Winarni, Rizki Wahyu Anggreini, Brigita Klara Krisdina Mamuaya

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Vegetables, drinking water, and preserved meats may contain sodium nitrite (NaNO2), which causes liver disease by inducing oxidative stress. Phytochemicals are highly recommended as an alternative to synthetic drugs and affordable medicines to treat liver disease because they have fewer or no side effects. Therefore, this study aims to determine the antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of red okra fruit ethanol extract against NaNO2-induced liver damage. Thirty-six male mice were separated into six groups. The normal control group (WA) was given distilled water only, and the NaNO2 (SN) group was given only 50 mg/kg BW NaNO2. The other four groups (P1, P2, P3, and P4) were given NaNO2 and red okra ethanol extract at doses of 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg BW, respectively. Gavage was administered orally for 21 consecutive days. Commercial kits define all biochemical parameters according to the manufacturer's instructions. Liver tissue staining followed standard protocols using hematoxylin and eosin. The study revealed that NaNO2 induction causes oxidative stress and damages the liver. The activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) significantly increased in the groups treated (P2-P4) with ethanol extract of red okra (p<0.05). Besides, the oxidants (malondialdehyde, F2-isoprostanes, and nitric oxide) in the liver homogenate significantly decreased in the P4 group, which were given red okra ethanol extract (p<0.05). Likewise, red okra pods decreased significantly for the serum biochemical parameters of liver damage (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and alanine aminotransferase) in the P3 and P4 groups (p<0.05). Then, it led to a restoration of the histological structure compared to exposed mice (SN), as the pathological scores decreased significantly in the P3 and P4 groups (p<0.05), as well as the number of the necrotic and swollen liver cells was reduced. Hepatocytes returned to normal. The results showed that the ethanol extract of red okra fruit could be helpful as an affordable medicine. It is an antioxidant and hepatoprotective agent to protect the liver from damage caused by NaNO2.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6647800
JournalVeterinary Medicine International
Publication statusPublished - 2021


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