Protecting mechanism of Swietenia macrophylla ethanol extract nanoparticle on streptozotocin induced renal damage in rat

Rochmah Kurnijasanti, Giftania Wardani, Muhammad Rais Mustafa, Sri Agus Sudjarwo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Hyperglycemia increases reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contributes to diabetic complications such as kidney cell damage. Antioxidant administration could inhibit ROS and kidney cell damage commonly seen in hyperglycemia. Aim: We want to demonstrate that the antioxidant properties of Swietenia macrophylla ethanol extract nanoparticles can prevent kidney cell damage brought on by streptozotocin (STZ) in the current investigation. Methods: This study employs high-energy ball milling to produce nanoparticles from S. macrophylla extract. Additionally, dynamic light scattering (DLS) is utilized to characterize the nanoparticle sizes of the S. macrophylla ethanol extract. Five groups, each consisting of 8 rats, were formed from 40 rats. Control rats received distilled water, the diabetic rats were administered STZ injections, while S. macrophylla rats were given S. macrophylla extract nanoparticles orally and STZ injection. After the trial, blood from a rat was drawn intracardially to check the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were then assessed in kidney tissue samples. Histological alterations were evaluated in kidney section samples. Results: A DLS analysis estimated the size of the S. macrophylla ethanol extract nanoparticles to be about 91.50 ± 23.06 nm. BUN and creatinine levels were significantly raised after STZ treatment. STZ significantly decreased SOD and GPx levels in kidney tissue while raising MDA levels (p < 0.05). Swietenia macrophylla ethanol extract nanoparticle caused the decreased levels of BUN and creatinine in blood to normal levels (p < 0.05), indicating that S. macrophylla ethanol extract prevented the STZ-induced kidney cell damage. Additionally, S. macrophylla nanoparticles significantly raise GPx and SOD levels in kidney tissue while lowering MDA levels (p < 0.05). These actions are thought to have prevented kidney histological alterations (degeneration and necrosis) in diabetic rats. Conclusion: According to these results, the anti-oxidative stress properties of S. macrophylla nanoparticles make them potentially effective nephroprotective therapies for STZ-induced kidney cell damage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1623-1630
Number of pages8
JournalOpen Veterinary Journal
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2023


  • Antioxidant
  • Diabetes
  • Nanoparticles
  • Nephroprotector
  • Swietenia macrophylla


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