Prospects and Challenges of MXenes as Emerging Sensing Materials for Flexible and Wearable Breath-Based Biomarker Diagnosis

Angga Hermawan, Tahta Amrillah, Anung Riapanitra, Wee Jun Ong, Shu Yin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)


A fully integrated, flexible, and functional sensing device for exhaled breath analysis drastically transforms conventional medical diagnosis to non-invasive, low-cost, real-time, and personalized health care. 2D materials based on MXenes offer multiple advantages for accurately detecting various breath biomarkers compared to conventional semiconducting oxides. High surface sensitivity, large surface-to-weight ratio, room temperature detection, and easy-to-assemble structures are vital parameters for such sensing devices in which MXenes have demonstrated all these properties both experimentally and theoretically. So far, MXenes-based flexible sensor is successfully fabricated at a lab-scale and is predicted to be translated into clinical practice within the next few years. This review presents a potential application of MXenes as emerging materials for flexible and wearable sensor devices. The biomarkers from exhaled breath are described first, with emphasis on metabolic processes and diseases indicated by abnormal biomarkers. Then, biomarkers sensing performances provided by MXenes families and the enhancement strategies are discussed. The method of fabrications toward MXenes integration into various flexible substrates is summarized. Finally, the fundamental challenges and prospects, including portable integration with Internet-of-Thing (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), are addressed to realize marketization.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2100970
JournalAdvanced healthcare materials
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - 20 Oct 2021


  • 2D materials
  • MXene
  • breath diagnosis
  • flexible and wearable
  • health care
  • sensor device


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