Propolis-enhanced Calcium Hydroxide Combination for Direct Pulp Capping: Impact on Oxidative Stress Markers in Wistar Rat Teeth

Ira Widjiastuti, Sri Kunarti, Evri Kusumah Ningtyas, Ayu Rafania Atikah, Khadijah Fauzi Basalamah, Amelia Evita Puspita, Novelia Ayu Widianti, Tengku Natasha Eleena Binti Tengku Ahmad Noor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: This study explored the effects of propolis extract calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2 ) combination on malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase expression in dental pulp, aiming to assess its potential as a direct pulp capping material. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups. Mandibular molar teeth were prepared using a low-speed round bur. In Group I, no material was applied; in Group II, teeth were treated with Ca(OH)2; and in Group III, teeth were treated with Propolis extract-Ca(OH)2, followed by Cention N filling. Immunohistochemistry was conducted on pulp tissue samples obtained on the third and seventh days post-treatment to assess malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase expression. Statistical analyses included the Shapiro-Wilk test, Levene test, ANOVA, and Tukey’s HSD. Results: The samples treated with propolis extract-Ca(OH)2 combination exhibited significantly lower malondialdehyde expression on both days compared to samples treated with Ca(OH)2 (P<0.05), indicating reduced oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase expression in the propolis extract-Ca(OH)2 group was higher (P<0.05), suggesting an enhanced antioxidant activity. The control group showed intermediate results. Statistical analyses confirmed significant differences between groups for both malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase expressions (P<0.05). Conclusion: The study suggests that the propolis extract-Ca(OH)2 combination holds promise for direct pulp capping applications by minimizing oxidative stress and promoting antioxidant defense mechanisms in dental pulp.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)99-104
Number of pages6
JournalIranian Endodontic Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2024


  • Calcium Hydroxide
  • Direct Pulp Capping
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Propolis
  • Superoxide Dismutase


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