Objective: To determine the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of Australian-registered insecticide formulations against Old World screwworm (OWS) myiases for potential use in screwworm containment and eradication programs. Methods: The longevity of protection provided by six insecticidal formulations (subcutaneous ivermectin, doramectin and abamectin, a topically applied aqueous formulation of spinosad, ivermectin controlled-release capsule and a dicyclanil spray-on formulation) was tested using implants of 1st-instar OWS larvae on Javanese thin-tail sheep. Therapeutic efficacy of four formulations (topical ivermectin, chlorfenvinphos/cypermethrin mixture, aerosol spinosad formulation and a formulation containing propetamphos and eucalyptus oil) was tested against 2- and 4-day-old OWS strikes. Results: Both the ivermectin capsule and dicyclanil spray-on formulation gave 100% protection against screwworm implants for the full 12 weeks of the study. Ivermectin, doramectin and abamectin administered SC all gave 100% protection at 3 days post-treatment, but at 2 weeks the protection had become incomplete. Spinosad dipping did not give complete protection at any time. All four therapeutic treatments gave complete resolution of 2-day-old strikes and topical ivermectin, spinosad and chlorfenvinphos/cypermethrin, but not the propetamphos/eucalyptus oil formulation, gave complete resolution of all 4-day-old strikes. Conclusion: Dicyclanil spray-on and ivermectin capsule formulations, both registered for use in sheep, but not for cattle or other livestock species, gave much longer protection against screwworm implants than the currently recommended SC ivermectin. Pre-emptive action to facilitate rapid deployment of these formulations in the event of a screwworm incursion is urgently needed.
- macrocyclic lactones