Profile of melasma patients in dermatology and venerology outpatient clinic Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia

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Background: Melasma is characterized by symmetrical brownish macules with well-defined borders. The etiology of melasma is still unknown, but factors that are thought to influence include genetic predisposition, ultraviolet radiation, hormonal factors, thyroid disorders, use of cosmetics, and drugs. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological data, evaluate risk factors, management, and follow-up in new melasma patients. Methods: The medical records of patients with melasma attending Dermatology and Venereology Outpatient Clinic over a 4-year period from 2015 to 2018 were analyzed retrospectively for this descriptive, observational study. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23 for Windows. Results: This study found 739 new melasma patients from January 2015 to December 2018, with the proportion of women 734 patients (99.3%) more than men only 5 patients (0,7%). The age of most patients who were treated was 46-55 years in 320 patients (43.3%), with the highest age of onset being 37-45 years in 308 patients (41.7%). About 561 patients (75.9%) had a melasma duration of more than 1 year. The most common job of melasma patients was housewives in 366 patients (49.5%). The most frequent risk factor for melasma was ultraviolet radiation in 258 patients (34.9%). The most common melasma was malar type in 482 patients (65.2%) and mixed melasma in 617 patients (83.4%). The most widely administered therapy was sunscreen in 735 patients (99.5%) and Tretinoin 0.05% in 235 patients (31.8%). Most patients did not make repeat visits as many as 448 patients (60.6%). Conclusion: The most common disease in women of childbearing age with ultraviolet radiation is the most precipitating risk factor. The low number of patient repeat visits can be caused by a lack of doctor education or a lack of patient adherence to treatment due to chronic and recurrent diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)166-173
Number of pages8
JournalBali Medical Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2022


  • Epidemiology
  • Human and Disease
  • Melasma
  • Risk Factors
  • Therapy


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