The concentrations of toxic elements were analyzed by using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). Moreover, the human health risk was estimated by Total Target Hazard Quotient (TTHQ) and Cancer Risk (CR) in Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) technique. The mean concentrations (mg/kg) of Cd (0.08 ± 0.08), Pb (0.23 ± 0.46), and As (0.06 ± 0.04), were in a good compliance with ISO (Iranian standard organization). TTHQ for adults and children was equal to 0.009 and 0.042, respectively and also mean CR in adults and children consumers was equal to 9.73E–7 and 9.08E–7, respectively. Consequently, the concentration of toxic elements (Cd, Pb, and As) in cocoa powder did not pose any safety concerns. Moreover, probabilistic health risk assessment revealed that both adults and children were not at considerable non-carcinogenic (THQ and/or TTHQ ≤ 1) and carcinogenic risk (CR ≤ 1E–6). Even though, seeking for mitigating solutions and applying them to suppress the dangers of food containing toxic elements is a critical subject.
|Journal||International Journal of Environmental Health Research|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 2022|
- Cocoa powder
- Heavy metals