Pro-Environmental Behavior and Social Capital in Indonesia 2021: A Micro Data Analysis

Winda Sartika Purba, Deni Kusumawardani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Pro-environmental behavior (PEB) is one of the individual efforts to provide public goods. This study differs from previous research in three basic aspects, starting from a multidimensional approach that simultaneously considered different PEB (energy savings, vehicle use, waste reduction, and water savings), included social capital as measured by 26 indicators, and the development of the PEB index and social capital with the CATPCA. Based on the data of 2021 Happiness Level Measurement Survey by Statistics Indonesia, this study found that social capital is an important and significant driver of PEB. In particular, social participation had the greatest effect followed by trust in government, trust in neighbors and tolerance. Other factors showed varying results; PEB was displayed more by women than men, rural people than urban people and people with a partner than those without. In addition, PEB improved with older age while increase in income and education decreased PEB. Based on the findings, this study suggested the government to take part in promoting an increase in social capital through the implementation of various joint activities/events in the neighborhood. In addition, the government and environmental protection organization can begin to voice the cost savings that can be achieved with PEB.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2107-2119
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • categorical PCA
  • pro-environmental behavior
  • social capital


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