Prevalence of medication adherence and glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes and influencing factors: A cross-sectional study

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Background: This study aimed to assess medication adherence, glycemic control, and their influencing factors among outpatients at an Indonesian clinic with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with type 2 diabetes at a hospital-based clinic in Surabaya, Indonesia, from September to December 2018. A purposive sampling was used; patients aged 18 years and older, had diabetes and any comorbidity, received hypoglycemic agents, and provided written informed consent were included. The previously validated Brief Medication Questionnaire was used to measure medication adherence, while glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) levels were used to evaluate glycemic control. Binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with medication adherence and glycemic control. Results: Of 321 patients enrolled in the study, 268 (83.5%) patients were medication nonadherent. Patients who did not engage regularly in physical activity (aOR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.26–0.93) was more likely to be medication adherent. Poor glycemic control (A1C: >7%) was observed in 106 (33.0%) of the patients. Patients who used a combination of oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin (aOR: 2.74, 95% CI: 1.09–6.86), did not take biguanide (aOR: 2.73, 95% CI: 1.16–6.43), reported hyperglycemia (aOR: 4.24, 95% CI: 1.53–11.81), and had comorbid diseases (aOR: 4.33, 95% CI: 1.08–17.34) increased the risk of having poor glycemic control. Patients who were more likely to achieve good glycemic control were male (aOR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.20–0.74) and aged older (aOR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92–0.99). Conclusions: The proportion of patients who were medication nonadherent was much higher than those with poor glycemic control. Whereas regular exercise was a predictor of nonadherence, age, sex, diabetes medication, not taking biguanide, acute complications, and comorbidity were predictors of poor glycemic control. Therefore, strategies are needed to improve medication adherence and glycemic control.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100113
JournalGlobal Epidemiology
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • Brief Medication Questionnaire
  • Glycosylated hemoglobin
  • Indonesia
  • Medication adherence
  • Type 2 diabetes


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