Avian influenza, commonly called bird flu, is highly contagious and pandemic zoonosis of global importance, primarily affecting birds and other mammals, including humans. The present review is intended to highlight a report on the prevalence of avian influenza in humans and different bird species of Indonesia. The study is based on 27 scientific articles from 2004 to May 2021 in which the prevalence of avian influenza is determined mainly by the following molecular, virological, and serological tests: polymerase chain reaction (PCR), hemagglutination inhibition (HI), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and ®Rapid antigen detection test. A vast divergence in the prevalence of avian influenza was observed due to the diversity in sensitivity and specificity of the tests applied. The prevalence of avian influenza varies due to spatial and temporal factors, bird species, and breed differences. An average maximum prevalence (25%)) was found in poultry (domestic and commercial birds) as compared to ducks (20.13%) and other birds (10.66%). An average documented prevalence (16.3%) was found in humans. Birds sold in live bird markets showed maximum prevalence due to different geographical distribution. The already published studies dissection illustrates that avian influenza infects all types of birds and humans in Indonesia. A proper surveillance system, effective vaccination plan, and segregation and culling strategy regarding avian influenza-infected birds are desperately needed to eradicate avian influenza in Indonesia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)709-718
Number of pages10
JournalIraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2022


  • Avian Influenza
  • Diagnosis
  • Prevalence
  • Vaccination
  • Zoonosis


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