Intense efforts to develop alternative materials for gelatine as a drug-delivery system are progressing at a high rate. Some of the materials developed are hard capsules made from alginate, carrageenan, hypromellose and cellulose. However, there are still some disadvantages that must be minimised or eliminated for future use in drug-delivery systems. This review attempts to review the preparation and potential of seaweed-based, specifically carrageenan, hard capsules, summarise their properties and highlight their potential as an optional main component of hard capsules in a drug-delivery system. The characterisation methods reviewed were dimensional analysis, water and ash content, microbial activity, viscosity analysis, mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, swelling degree analysis, gel permeation chromatography, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The release kinetics of the capsule is highlighted as well. This review is expected to provide insights for new researchers developing innovative products from carrageenan-based hard capsules, which will support the development goals of the industry.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2666
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021


  • Carrageenan
  • Drug-delivery system
  • Hard capsule
  • Product innovation
  • Seaweed


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