Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide, which was responsible for approximately 9.6 million fatalities in 2018. Cancer treatment innovations are very diverse: namely chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, surgery and combinations of these therapy techniques. Therefore, the formulation of a new therapy strategy is required to inhibit the growth of cancer cells without major side effects and economical reasons. Hydroxyapatite-based biomaterial has been applied as anti-cancer because it has a good biocompatibility and bioactivity. Tegillarca granosa contains a high percentage of CaCO3, which is also the source of calcium for hydroxyapatite synthesis. The general objective of this study is to obtain standardized hydroxyapatite nanoparticles from T. granosa shells as potential anti-cancer materials. The hydroxyapatite synthesis employed the hydrothermal method by utilizing High Energy Milling tools to alter the size into nanoparticles. The sample characterization methods used were PSA, FTIR, SEM-EDX, XRD and the cytotoxicity test with MTT assay. The result with XRD spectra showed that the sample had crystallized well. Furthermore, the SEM-EDX analysis had a Ca/P ratio of 1,67. The development of the PSA test was 183.6 nm. Based on the cytotoxicity test, the development of the cell viability showed that the nHAP was not toxic in a typical cell environment. This study concludes that the yield of synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles from the clam’s shell of T. granosa had significant results and it was reaching the HAp standard, also having a potential as cancer treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1639-1647
Number of pages9
JournalAACL Bioflux
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2022


  • Tegillarca granosa shells
  • anti-cancer
  • hydrothermal
  • hydroxyapatite
  • nanoparticles


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