Preparation and evaluation of ciprofloxacin implants using bovine hydroxyapatite-chitosan composite and glutaraldehyde for osteomyelitis

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Objective: The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a controlled release implant of ciprofloxacin using Bovine Hydroxyapatite-Chitosan composite and glutaraldehyde as cross-link agent. Methods: Ciprofloxacin implants were prepared using Bovine Hydroxyapatite-Chitosan composite composition 70:30. This composite was further developed using three different concentrations of glutaraldehyde (0.5%, 0.75%, and 1,0%). Implants were formed into pellets with 4.0 mm diameters and weighed 100.0 mg using compression method. Further, the prepared ciprofloxacin implants were characterized for porosity, density, water absorption capacity, swelling ratio, degradation test, compressive strength, compatibility studies (FT-IR), morphology (SEM), X-ray diffraction study, assay, and in vitro drug release. Results: The addition of glutaraldehyde as cross-link agent in ciprofloxacin implants showed controlled release profile of ciprofloxacin over a time period 30 d. This is caused by glutaraldehyde formed compact structure, so the porosity, water absorption capacity, and swelling ratio of the implants decreased. Scanning Electron Microscope photomicrograph revealed low porosity of the implants after cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The FTIR study confirmed the formation of covalent imine bonds between Chitosan and glutaraldehyde. However, the addition of glutaraldehyde as a cross-link agent caused a decrease in the mechanical strength of the implants. Increased concentration of glutaraldehyde reduced the cristalinity of BHA and Chitosan, which were confirmed by XRD studies. In consequence, the mechanical strength of the implants decreases. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study indicated that glutaraldehyde has the potential effect to retard ciprofloxacin release from Bovine Hydroxyapatite-Chitosan-ciprofloxacin implants for 30 d in the treatment of osteomyelitis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-51
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Bovine Hydroxyapatite
  • Chitosan
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Cross-link
  • Glutaraldehyde
  • Implants
  • Osteomyelitis


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