Predictors of national health insurance membership among the poor with different education levels in Indonesia

Nuzulul Kusuma Putri, Agung Dwi Laksono, Nikmatur Rohmah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Indonesia has made significant progress in expanding universal health coverage (UHC) through its National Health Insurance (NHI) mechanism. However, in the context of NHI implementation in Indonesia, socioeconomic disparities caused its subpopulations to have different literacy of NHI concepts and procedures, increasing the risk of healthcare access inequities. Hence, the study aimed to analyse the predictors of NHI membership among the poor with different education levels in Indonesia. Methods: This study used the secondary dataset of the nationwide survey “Abilities and Willingness to Pay, Fee, and Participant Satisfaction in implementing National Health Insurance in Indonesia in 2019” by The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. The study population was the poor population in Indonesia and included a weighted sample of 18,514 poor people. The study used NHI membership as a dependent variable. Meanwhile, the study analysed seven independent variables: wealth, residence, age, gender, education, employment, and marital status. In the final step of the analysis, the study used binary logistic regression. Results: The results show that the NHI membership among the poor population tends to be higher among those who have higher education, live in urban areas, are older than 17 years old, are married and are wealthier. The poor population with higher education levels is more likely to become NHI members than those with lower education. Their residence, age, gender, employment, marital status, and wealth also predicted their NHI membership. Poor people with primary education are 1.454 times more likely to be NHI members than those without education (AOR 1.454; 95% CI 1.331–1.588). Meanwhile, those with secondary education are 1.478 times more likely to be NHI members than those with no education (AOR 1.478; 95% CI 1.309–1.668). Moreover, higher education is 1.724 times more likely to result in being an NHI member than no education (AOR 1.724; 95% CI 1.356–2.192). Conclusion: Education level, residence, age, gender, employment, marital status, and wealth predict NHI membership among the poor population. Since significant differences exist in all of those predictors among the poor population with different education levels, our findings highlighted the importance of government investment in NHI, which must be supported with investment in the poor population’s education.

Original languageEnglish
Article number373
JournalBMC Public Health
Volume23
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

Keywords

  • Disparity
  • Education
  • National Health Insurance
  • Social security
  • Universal health coverage

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