Identity verification is a crucial component of forensic sciences, as it necessitates accurately determining an individual's sex, age, and ancestry. The mandible is a commonly studied facial bone for sex determination due to its durability and preservation. This study aims to evaluate various parameters in the mandible for sex determination through morphometric analysis of panoramic radiographs. Fifty-seven panoramic radiographs of patients (22 males and 35 females, 18 – 40 years old) were examined in this study. Ten specific parameters were determined as follows: Bi-condylar Breadth (BCD), Bi-Coronoid Breadth (BCR), Bi-Mental Foramen Breadth (BMF), Bi-Mandibular Notch Breadth (BMN), Bi-Gonial Breadth (BGN), Minimum Ramus Breadth (MRB), Symphysis Height (SYM), Ramus Height (RAH), Mandibular Body Length (MBL), and Mandibular Notch Length (MNL). The morphometric analysis of these parameters was evaluated using Adobe Photoshop®CS6 software. The discriminant function analysis showed a significant difference between males and females in two variables: SYM and RAH, with Wilks’ lambda values of 0.857 and 0.924, respectively, and p<0.05. The mean value of symphysis height was 29.10 ± 4.42 mm in males and 25.97 ± 3.36 mm in females, with p<0.004. Similarly, the mean value of ramus height was 54.64 ± 10.79 mm in males and 49.89 ± 7.13 mm in females, with p<0.038. The formula Z = -4.887 + (0.31*SYM) + (0.046*RAH) can be used to determine sex using these variables. These findings may have important implications for forensic investigations and provide a non-invasive method for sex determination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32-40
Number of pages9
JournalBulletin of the International Association for Paleodontology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • identification
  • legal identity
  • morphometric analysis
  • sex determination


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