Potentially toxic elements (PTES) concentration in anchovy fish sauce from Hormozgan province, Iran: a probabilistic health risk study

Nafas Pasalary, Hamid Reza Ghaffari, Mohammad Borzoei, Zohreh Kamari, Fereshteh Mehri, Yadolah Fakhri, Trias Mahmudiono, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The present study was designed to assess the concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTES) in anchovy fish sauce from the Persian Gulf and estimate health risks (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks. In the present study, the concentration of PTES, including Lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Nickel (Ni), and Copper (Cu) among 60 samples of anchovy fish sauce was measured using an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). The probabilistic health risk due to the ingestion of fish sauce content of PTEs was estimated by total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) and Cancer risk (CR) using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) model. The rank order of PTEs in anchovy fish sauce based on median concentration was Fe (15.72 mg/kg) > Pb (4.34 mg/kg) > As (0.79 mg/kg) > Cd (<LOD) ~ Ni (<LOD) ~ Cu (<LOD). The rank order of consumers based on the median of TTHQ was children-boy (0.731) > children-girl (0.678) > adults male (0.391) > adults-female (0.208). Also, the rank order of consumers based on CR was Adults-Male (1.54E–04) > Adults-Female (8.47E–05) > Children-Boy (1.74E–05) > Children-Girl (1.63E–05). The probabilistic health risk assessment demonstrated that ingest of anchovy fish sauce does not have a non-cancer risk but can have cancer risk for consumers. Therefore, a continuous monitoring program is recommended to reduce the concentration of PTEs in marine food.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023

Keywords

  • Anchovy Fish
  • Monte Carlo Simulation
  • fish sauce
  • food safety
  • potentially toxic elements (PTE)

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