Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) in Refined and Cold-Pressed Vegetable Oils Distributed in Ahvaz, Iran: a Probabilistic Health Risk Assessment

Seyed Ali Askarpour, Ebrahim Molaee-Aghaee, Maryam Ghaderi-Ghahfarokhi, Nabi Shariatifar, Trias Mahmudiono, Parisa Sadighara, Yadolah Fakhri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in vegetable oils using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was measured. Probabilistic non-carcinogenic risk in consumers was estimated using the target hazard quotient (THQ) and total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) by Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method. The highest content of PTEs was found in blend oil for As (0.39 ± 0.07 mg/L), in cold-pressed rapeseed oil for Cd and Cu (0.07 ± 0 and 0.40 ± 0.06 mg/L) respectively, in cold-pressed sunflower oil for Fe (0.15 ± 0.10 mg/L), in refined sesame oil for Ni and Pb (0.44 ± 0.07 and 0.65 ± 0.07 mg/L, respectively), and in cold-pressed sunflower and rapeseed oils for Zn (0.19 ± 0.04 mg/L). THQ in adults and children due to individual vegetable oils (cold-pressed and refined vegetable oil) was lower than 1 value. TTHQ in adults and children due to consumption of cold-pressed vegetable oils was 0.05 and 0.26, and also refined vegetable oil was 0.51 and 0.33, respectively. TTHQ due to consumption of both types of oils was less than 1; therefore, the population is not at risk of non-carcinogenicity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4567-4575
Number of pages9
JournalBiological Trace Element Research
Volume201
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023

Keywords

  • Cold-pressed
  • Edible oil
  • Potential toxic element; Heavy metals
  • Refined
  • Risk assessment

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