The global outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019 has highlighted rapid and accurate diagnostic tools for effective intervention. While the RT-PCR test offers 86 % sensitivity, uncertainties often require supplementary screening. This research investigates how carbon dots (CDs) can be utilized as markers for COVID-19 antibodies, taking advantage of their biocompatibility and low toxicity. CDs were synthesized using citric acid (CA) and APBA with boronic acid, enabling the detection of COVID-19 IgG antibodies with increased absorbance and fluorescence. Comprehensive analyses confirmed the successful synthesis of APBA-CDs, prompting further exploration of their impact on SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Increased absorbance levels were observed in categories K1, K2, and K3, attributed to the introduction of CDs into plasma, indicating effective binding of APBA-CDs to COVID-19 antibodies. In addition, the fluorescence tests consistently showed heightened levels across all categories, emphasizing the effective binding of APBA-CDs with COVID-19 antibodies, particularly in positive plasma samples. As a part of our analysis, we conducted a PCA test to validate the data, which revealed that APBA-CDs are specific to IgG+ antibodies. The results showed a sensitivity rate of 74 % and a specificity rate of 53 %, while, when tested for IgM antibodies, the sensitivity and specificity rates were 63 % and 27 %, respectively. These findings highlight the potential of APBA-CDs as a sensitive and specific marker for COVID-19 antibody detection, offering potential for diagnostic tool development.

Original languageEnglish
Article number116242
JournalJournal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sept 2024


  • Biosensor
  • Boron doping
  • Carbon dots
  • COVID-19
  • IgG antibody


Dive into the research topics of 'Potential usage of boron modified carbon nanodots as a marker candidate for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) antibody detection'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this