Potential of natural sunlight for microalgae cultivation in Yogyakarta

E. Habibah, E. A. Suyono, M. D. Koerniawan, L. T. Suwanti, U. J. Siregar, A. Budiman

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The study of microalgae is widely developed on a laboratory scale. The large-scale applications of microalgae such as large photo-bioreactors or commercial ponds are not well established due to some obstacles. The high cost of artificial lighting in microalgae cultivation is one of the obstacles. Markedly, the natural sunlight intensity is high every month for a whole year in Indonesia. This natural sunlight may serve as a low-cost lighting source for microalgae cultivation in a tropical country such as Indonesia. However, the basic knowledge of whether the natural sunlight in Indonesia is sufficient or not for microalgae cultivation is poorly understood. This study was performed to investigate whether sunlight in Indonesia, particularly in Yogyakarta, is sufficient or not for microalgae cultivation in the absence of artificial lighting. The sun lighting period data from January 2019 to June 2020 were collected from BMKG (Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika) website. The sun lighting period data were converted into solar radiation data. The Liliefors test was performed to evaluate the distribution of the solar radiation data. To confirm whether the sun lighting in Yogyakarta is sufficient for microalgae cultivation or not, the parametric statistical test namely single sample T-test was used in this study. The Liliefors test showed that solar radiation in Yogyakarta (January 2019 to June 2020) was normally distributed. The calculated Liliefors value (0.14) was less than Liliefors table value (2.00). The T-test results revealed that the solar radiation in Yogyakarta is equal to or higher than the sufficient solar radiation (reference) for microalgae cultivation (795 kWh/m2). The calculated t value (0.65) was higher than the t table value (-1.74). When taken together, our findings suggest that natural sunlight in Yogyakarta is sufficient as a lighting source for microalgae cultivation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number012041
JournalIOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jan 2022
Event2021 International Bioprocessing Association Subject Conference, IBASC 2021 - Yogyakarta, Virtual, Indonesia
Duration: 4 Aug 20215 Aug 2021


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