Potential Methods to Improve Self-Management in Those with Type 2 Diabetes: A Narrative Review

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Context: The ability to self-manage is important for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, and it is supported and depends on the method used. We aimed to summarize the potential method of self-management to improve self-empowerment. Evidence Acquisition: To obtain the related data, 5 databases, including Scopus, Science Direct, ProQuest, CINAHL, and SAGE, were comprehensively searched. The search was done in advance using the Boolean operator. The full texts of articles presenting data on self-management methods were screened and retrieved. Results: A total of 22 studies were included in this review. Various self-management techniques were covered with primary and secondary outcomes. Primary outcomes included blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Secondary outcomes included knowledge, self-efficacy, lifestyle habits, physical activity, diet, smok-ing, medical treatment, support, and health behavior. A goal-setting-oriented approach was effective in setting targets and gaining support from family members. A family-centered approach was effective in taking care of and taking good care of patients with T2DM. Strength training exercises provide patients with a choice of physical activity that can help them manage their blood sugar and blood pressure. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a stress-reduction technique. The patient’s acceptance of the disease and treatment for diabetes is aided by education. Conclusions: A successful self-management method is one which balances and adapts to the patient’s condition. Regardless of the age of the patients, the overall findings from the review suggest that self-management methods can help patients become healthier and improve their quality of life by controlling their hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere119698
JournalInternational Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • Quality of Life
  • Self-empowerment
  • Self-management
  • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


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