Potential Exploitation of Female Vocational High School Students in Internship Programs

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This study aims to determine the exploitation potential in internship practices experienced by female vocational students due to the weak bargaining position of students and the imbalance in the relationship between the school and the company. Theoretically, the phenomenon of exploitation experienced by female students who intern in the industrial sector can be associated with tactical capitalism that is intertwined with the education sector. This study was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, where internship opportunities in the industrial sector for vocational students were still limited. However, this study can still show the potential for exploitation of female students even though the opportunity to take part in internships in the industrial sector is still not wide open for them. This research used mixed methods, where data is collected using quantitative methods through survey research, followed by in-depth qualitative methods. The research was conducted in four regencies in East Java, including Tuban, Mojokerto, Sidoarjo, and Ngawi. The sample consisted of 271 female students studying in vocational high schools and participating in internships in the business sectors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3
JournalJournal of International Women's Studies
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Exploitation
  • Female students
  • Internship
  • Vocational high school


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