Postgraduate nurse education in Indonesia and Australia: A comparative analysis

Lisa McKenna, Christine L. Sommers, Rini Rachmawaty, Ferry Efendi, Gulzar Malik, Jenny Davis, Rachael Duncan, Ian Ruddy Mambu, Ika Adelia Susanti, Musmulyono

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Indonesia and Australia are neighbouring countries; however, their nursing systems are very different and there is limited migration between countries. Aim: As part of a larger study, the aim was to undertake a comparative analysis of postgraduate nurse education in Indonesia and Australia. Design: Detailed literature review across academic and grey literature and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in Indonesia (n = 52) and Australia (n = 13) representing education, governments, professional nursing organisations, and rural, remote and urban health care providers. Findings: Three key categories of comparison were identified: Higher Education System, Education Offerings, and Specialist practice and education standards. Regulation of higher education was found to generally be comparable. Postgraduate nursing specialisations are available in both countries, but there are currently more offerings in Australia. Furthermore, nurse practitioner education and graduate entry pathways into nursing are only currently available in Australia. Journal publications are required for graduation from masters and doctoral programmes in Indonesia, but not Australia. Conclusions: While there are many areas of similarity, postgraduate nurse education is more diverse in Australia, while there are growing opportunities for new developments in Indonesia. This analysis identifies areas for future consideration around postgraduate education development in both countries, along with possibilities for future collaboration. Furthermore, comparative analysis provided a useful foundation on mapping key elements.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105954
JournalNurse Education Today
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • Comparative analysis
  • Education
  • Nursing
  • Post-registration
  • Postgraduate
  • Specialty


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