Objective: Reconstruction of alveolar bone defects resulting from aging, trauma, ablative surgery or pathology, remains a significant clinical challenge. The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of mixed polymethylmethacrylate-hydroxyapatite (PMMA-HA) against oral microorganisms. Our findings could provide valuable insights into the prospective application of PMMA-HA as a synthetic bone graft material to manage alveolar bone defects via tissue engineering. Methods: HA powder was obtained from the Center for Ceramics in Indonesia and PMMA granules were obtained from HiMedia Laboratories; these were prepared in 20:80, 30:70, and 40:60 ratios. The antibacterial diffusion method was then performed against Staphylococcus aureus, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum, while the antifungal diffusion method was used to test against Candida albicans. Standardized protocols were used for microbial culturing and inhibition zones were measured with digital calipers. Statistical analyses included one-way ANOVA and Kruskal–Wallis tests, supplemented by post-hoc Tukey HSD tests. Results: A PMMA-HA scaffold with a 20:80 ratio demonstrated the highest antibacterial activity against S. aureus, A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, and F. nucleatum. This was followed by the 30:70 and 40:60 ratios in terms of antibacterial activity. Statistical significance was achieved with p < 0.05 in comparison to controls. However, none of the PMMA-HA ratios showed antifungal activity against C. albicans. Conclusion: PMMA-HA scaffolds have significant activity against bacteria, but not against fungi.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)190-197
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Taibah University Medical Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


  • Alveolar bone defect
  • Antibacterial
  • Antifungal
  • Hydroxyapatite
  • Medicine
  • Polymethylmethacrylate


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