Plant-based coagulants/flocculants: characteristics, mechanisms, and possible utilization in treating aquaculture effluent and benefiting from the recovered nutrients

Mohammad Mohammad Alnawajha, Setyo Budi Kurniawan, Muhammad Fauzul Imron, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah, Hassimi Abu Hasan, Ahmad Razi Othman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The increasing intensification of the aquaculture industry requires the development of new strategies to reduce the negative impacts of wastewater on the environment. Plant-based coagulants/flocculants, regarded as one of the environmentally friendly technologies for wastewater treatment, show good performance in the removal of suspended solids from wastewater. The aforementioned technology involves the utilization of plants as coagulants/flocculants in the treatment process and produces nontoxic sludge as treatment by-products. The produced sludge could be converted into valuable compounds used in agriculture. This review summarizes coagulation–flocculation by using plant-based coagulants/flocculants, its mechanisms, operational factors that control the treatment process, and its application in the treatment of wastewater, especially aquaculture effluent. Moreover, this work discusses the potential utilization of aquaculture sludge as a valuable compound used in agriculture. The presented review aims to emphasize the potential of using plant-based coagulants/flocculants in the treatment of aquaculture effluent and explore the potential of using the produced sludge as fertilizer for plants to solve problems related to sludge handling and the toxicity of inorganic coagulants in a recirculating aquaculture system. This paper concluded that utilization of recovered nutrients in the form of solids is feasible for agricultural purposes, while a hydroponic system can be used to reclaim the nutrients in the form of solution.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)58430-58453
Number of pages24
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume29
Issue number39
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022

Keywords

  • Aquaculture
  • Natural coagulant/flocculant
  • Nutrients
  • Sludge
  • Wastewater treatment

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