Phytochemical quantification and HPLC analysis of Parkia speciosa pod extract

Nur Dayana Hassan Cheong, Emida Mohamed, Norhisham Haron, Siti Nazrina Camalxaman, Anas Abdullah, Mohd Izwan Mohamad Yusof, Ahmad Razali Ishak, Sharaniza Ab Rahim, Zolkapli Eshak, Abdul Rohim Tualeka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Parkia speciosa Hassk., commonly known as bitter bean or twisted cluster bean, is a tropical leguminous plant species native to Southeast Asia. The plant's edible pods have been traditionally used in various cuisines, particularly in Malaysian, Thai, and Indonesian cooking. Apart from being used as a food ingredient, the pods of P. speciosa also have a range of potential applications in other fields, including medicine, agriculture, and industry. The pods are said to have several phytochemicals that hold great therapeutic values such as reducing inflammation, improving digestion, and lowering blood sugar levels. However, there is limited information on the specific phytochemical contents of the pods in the literature. Thus, the aim of this study is to quantify the total phenolic and flavonoid compounds and to determine the concentrations of four selected phytochemical compounds in the P. speciosa pod extract (PSPE). Materials and Methods: Quantification of the total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid contents (TFC) in PSPE were done via colourimetric methods; and the determination of the concentrations of four specific phytochemicals (gallic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and quercetin) were done via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results: Colourimetric determination of PSPE showed TPC and TFC values of 84.53±9.40 mg GAE/g and 11.96±4.51 mg QE/g, respectively. Additional analysis of the phytochemicals using HPLC revealed that there were 6.45±3.36 g/kg, 5.91±1.07 g/kg, 0.39±0.84 g/kg, and 0.19±0.47 g/kg of caffeic acid, gallic acid, rutin, and quercetin, respectively. Conclusion: The findings show that PSPE contains substantial amounts of caffeic acid, gallic acid, rutin, and quercetin, which may indicate its potential as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-lipid, and antiviral medicines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)34-39
Number of pages6
JournalMedical Journal of Malaysia
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • HPLC
  • Parkia speciosa
  • ethanol extract
  • phytochemicals


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