Background and Aim: Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) are frequently acquired from all ages and types of bird species. In general, ducks are considered as potential reservoirs for different genotypes of NDV and are resistant even to velogenic NDV strains. This research was conducted to genotypically and phylogenetically characterize NDV isolates collected from unvaccinated ducks from Indonesia. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 samples were collected through cloacal swabs and were inoculated in the allantoic sacs of 8-day-old specific pathogen-free eggs. Hemagglutination (HA) activity was analyzed through a HA test, and isolated viruses were characterized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction targeting the complete fusion (F)-gene of NDV using three primer sets. One primer set was specific for the F protein cleavage site sequences of velogenic, mesogenic, and lentogenic NDV strains. Results: The results demonstrated that three isolates (NDV/Duck/B104/19, NDV/Duck/B125/19, and NDV/Duck/ BK43/19) belonged to genotype VII and one (NDV/Duck/TD19/19) to genotype VI. Other isolates (NDV/Duck/A74/19 and NDV/Duck/M147/19) belonged to genotype II Class II. Based on the F protein cleavage site and the pathogenicity tests, two isolates (NDV/Duck/B104/19 and NDV/Duck/B125/19) were categorized as velogenic viruses and four (NDV/Duck/ BK43/19, NDV/Duck/TD19/19, NDV/Duck/A74/19, and NDV/Duck/M147/19) as lentogenic viruses. Conclusion: The results indicate that NDVs from unvaccinated ducks from Indonesia carry various genotypes and pathotypes of NDVs; therefore, these viruses are still circulating in the environment and might pose a risk of Newcastle disease outbreak.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)276-284
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of One Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • duck
  • F gene
  • genotype variation
  • Indonesia
  • Newcastle disease virus
  • phylogenetic relationship


Dive into the research topics of 'Phylogenetic relationship and genotype variation of six Newcastle disease viruses isolated from duck in Indonesia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this