Gut microbiota is the most diverse and complex biological ecosystem, which is estimated to consist of greater than 5 million distinct genes and 100 trillion cells which are in constant communication with the host environment. The interaction between the gut microbiota and drugs and other xenobiotic compounds is bidirectional, quite complicated, and not fully understood yet. The impact of xenobiotics from pollution, manufacturing processes or from the environment is harmful to human health at varying degrees and this needs to be recognized and addressed. The gut microbiota is capable of biotransforming/metabolizing of various drugs and xenobiotic compounds as well as altering the activity and toxicity of these substances, thereby influencing how a host responds to drugs and xenobiotics and this emerging field is known as pharmacomicrobiomics. In this review, we discussed different mechanisms of drug–gut microbiota interaction and highlighted the influence of drug-gut microbiome interactions on the clinical response in humans.
- drug metabolism
- gut microbiota