Periodontal ligament fibroblasts utilize isoprenoid intermediate farnesyl diphosphate for maintaining osteo/cementogenic differentiation abilities

Xiuting Wang, Shigeki Suzuki, Hang Yuan, Shizu Hirata-Tsuchiya, Rahmad Rifqi Fahreza, Eiji Nemoto, Hideki Shiba, Satoru Yamada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background/purpose: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a major transcription factor of energy metabolism-associated genes, and three PPARγ isoforms have been identified in periodontal tissues and cells. When energy metabolism homeostasis is affected by PPARγ downregulation in periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLFs), osteo/cementogenic abilities are markedly lost. Herein, we investigated whether PPARγ agonists promote periodontal tissue regeneration, and which PPARγ isoforms and metabolic pathways are indispensable for osteo/cementogenic abilities. Materials and methods: A PPARγ agonist was locally administered to regenerate murine periodontal tissue. The distinct functions of the PPARγ isoforms in PDLFs were assessed using an overexpression strategy. Candidate metabolic processes were searched using gene ontology analysis of PPARγ-knockdown PDLFs. In vitro differentiation assays were performed to evaluate the effects of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), two major isoprenoid intermediates. Results: PPARγ agonists accelerated periodontal tissue regeneration. Full-length PPARγ overexpression specifically enhanced the osteo/cementogenic differentiation of PPARγ agonist–induced PDLFs. The isoprenoid metabolic process was the top-ranked downregulated metabolism-associated pathway following PPARγ knockdown; FPP and GGPP enhanced and suppressed PDLFs' differentiation, respectively. Gene expression analysis of human clinical periodontal tissues revealed that osteocalcin correlated with farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase (FDPS), which catalyzes FPP production, but not with two FPP conversion enzymes: geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase 1 (GGPS1) or farnesyl diphosphate farnesyltransferase 1 (FDFT1). Conclusion: Preferable PPARγ agonistic actions depend on the full-length PPARγ isoform. FPP increased PDLFs' osteo/cementogenic abilities. Therefore, administering FPP and precisely controlling FDPS, GGPS1, and FDFT1 activities could be a novel strategy for accelerating periodontal tissue regeneration.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Dental Sciences
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Energy metabolism
  • Isoprenoid synthesis
  • Periodontal ligament fibroblasts
  • Periodontal tissue regeneration
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ


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