Periodontal disease on individual GJL1.1 from Kotabaru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

Delta Bayu Murti, Nia Marniati Etie Fajari, Toetik Koesbardiati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article aims to describe the periodontal disease, particularly periodontitis, found on the skeletal remains of an individual dating from the Paleometallic period in Indonesia. The material used for this research is the individual skeletal remains from the Jauharlin 1 Cave site, Kotabaru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, which lived during the period 1576 ± 15 BP (1410 cal. BP). The periodontitis condition data were collected through macroscopic observation of the maxillary and mandibular alveolar bone. The observation results showed a moderate level of periodontitis, especially in the alveolar bone of the maxillary anterior teeth. In addition, periapical voids were observed in the alveolar bone of the mandibular anterior teeth as well. The morphology suggests the possibility of a cyst developing into a chronic abscess or a hybrid periapical problem. The condition of periodontitis in the maxillary anterior teeth is thought to be caused by a plant-based diet with high carbohydrates. This suspicion was strengthened by a phytolith analysis of soil samples taken from the pelvic cavity of GJL1.1, which showed plant residues from the families/subfamily Arecaceae, Oryzoideae, and Musaceae that is suspected as the GJL1.1 diet. Another factor that is thought to be the cause of periodontitis, including periapical voids, is betel quid chewing. Betel quid ingredients are thought to have triggered inflammation in the periodontal tissues. Consuming betel quid by holding the ingredients in the alveolar area of the right mandibular anterior teeth is thought to be the cause of inflammation in the periapical area.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-31
Number of pages11
JournalBulletin of the International Association for Paleodontology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • betel quid chewing
  • periapical voids
  • periodontal disease
  • periodontitis


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