Performance of a modified and intermittently operated slow sand filter with two different mediums in removing turbidity, ammonia, and phosphate with varying acclimatization periods

Nurina Fitriani, Ledy Theresia, Timothy Tjahja Nugraha O'Marga, Setyo Budi Kurniawan, Agus Supriyanto, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah, Luuk C. Rietveld

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The present study investigated the utilization of blood clam shells as a potential substitute for conventional media, as well as the influence of the acclimation time on the efficacy of an intermittent slow sand filter (ISSF) in the treatment of real domestic wastewater. ISSF was operated with 16 h on and 8 h off, focusing on the parameters of turbidity, ammonia, and phosphate. Two media combinations (only blood clam shells [CC] and sand + blood clam shells [SC]) were operated under two different acclimatization periods (14 and 28 d). Results showed that SC medium exhibited significantly higher removal of turbidity (p < 0.05) as compared to CC medium (45.99 ± 26.84 % vs. 3.79 ± 9.35 %), while CC exhibited slightly higher (p > 0.05) removal of ammonia (23.12 ± 20.2 % vs. 16.77 ± 16.8 %) and phosphate (18.03 ± 11.96 % vs 13.48 ± 12 %). Comparing the acclimatization periods, the 28 d of acclimatization period showed higher overall performances than the 14 d. Further optimizations need to be conducted to obtain an effluent value below the national permissible limit, since the ammonia and phosphate parameters are still slightly higher. SEM analysis confirmed the formation of biofilm on both mediums after 28 d of acclimatization; with further analysis of schmutzdecke formation need to be carried out to enrich the results.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere22577
JournalHeliyon
Volume9
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

Keywords

  • Filtration
  • Wastewater
  • Water treatment
  • biofilm
  • schmutzdecke

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