Palliative care learning model based on transformational learning theory in palliative care of nursing students in Indonesia

Ni Luh Putu Inca Buntari Agustini, Nursalam Nursalam, Tintin Sukartini, I. Dewa Ayu Rismayanti, Ni Wayan Suniadewi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Palliative care competence is one of the competencies that must be possessed by generalist nurses. For this reason, strategies for developing palliative care learning models need to be carried out to ensure nursing students have palliative care competencies. Therefore, this study was structured to develop a transformation theory-based palliative care learning model that prioritizes the active participation of students to deal with palliative care in future practice. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study involving 189 nursing students as participants. The proposed model involves six variables, namely student characteristics, educator characteristics, learning media, palliative care competencies, transformative learning theory (TLT)-based palliative learning, and competency achievement. Data were collected using a questionnaire that was tested using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique. Results: SEM analysis showed that the R2 value of TLT-based palliative care learning was 0.707 or 70.7%. These results indicate that the diversity of TLT-based palliative care learning variables can be explained by the variables of students, educators, palliative competencies, and learning media by 70.7%. Each construct has a value of Q2 > 0, which means the model is satisfactory. The path coefficient value of 0.627 indicates that the characteristics of educators have the most significant contribution to the TLT-based palliative care learning model. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the teaching-learning process based on TLT is a promising strategy to support nursing students to achieve palliative care competence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)102-114
Number of pages13
JournalEnfermeria Clinica
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2023


  • Learning model
  • Nursing students
  • Palliative care
  • Transformational learning theory


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