Background: Distilled liquid smoke from coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L.) by pyrolysis process with final temperature 400°C and then distilled in 120-150°C. The characteristics of distilled liquid smoke are yellow liquid, with acidity 2.39 and density 1.0643 g/cm3. The major identified compounds arephenol (36.6%), 2- methoxyphenol (guaiacol) (25.2%), furfural (17.8%), 2-methoxy-5-methylphenol (5.2%) and 4-ethyl-2- methoxyphenol (EMP) (3.5%) with 28 other minor constituents by GCMS. Aim and Objectives: Distilled liquid smoke was examined to investigate its potential therapeutic to oral ulcer healing and diabetic condition on the rat. Furthermore, the clinical oral ulcer healing was evaluated based on ulcer size and diabetic was evaluated based on Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) and body weight changes. Material and Methods: Diabetes was induced by alloxan. Seventy-two hours after injection, the diabetic condition was confirmed with FBG of >200mg/dl, then the labial fornix anterior was injured to induce oral ulcer using round steel blade. Results: The clinical oral ulcer healing was improved after treatment with distillated liquid smoke compared to benzydamine hydrochloride and aquadest sterile for three days (p=0.005) and seven days (p=0.000). Treatment for seven days with distilled liquid smoke showed significant improvement of the body mass changes compared to benzydamine hydrochloride (p=0.008) and aquadest sterile (p=0.002). There was no improvement of FBG after treatment with distilled liquid smoke (p=0.152). Conclusion: Treatment with distilled liquid smoke coconut shell can improved oral ulcer healing and body weight changes, but not FBG changes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)70-79
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019


  • Alloxan
  • Coconut shell
  • Diabetic
  • Distilled liquid smoke
  • Oral ulcer healing


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