It is common for women to undergo orthodontic treatment during pregnancy, especially through the use of fixed orthodontic devices. In changing the oral microbiome profile, it is crucial to increase the immune responses of pregnant women using fixed orthodontics; however, changes in the microbiomes of pregnant women with orthodontic appliances can be adjusted. Therefore, we aimed to conduct research on the oral cavity microbiome profiles, specifically IL-6 and TNF-α, of pregnant women using fixed orthodontic appliances. We proposed an observational analysis of 30 third-trimester pregnant women. OHI-S was recorded, saliva collection was performed using the passive drool method for IL-6 and TNF-α, and analysis and mucosal swabs were used to determine the oral microbiome profile. Kruskal–Wallis and post hoc Bonferroni tests were used to identify any significant differences with values of p < 0.05. Of these pregnant women, those with orthodontic appliances developed 10 types of bacteria at similar levels (>80%) from the genera Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Veillonella. There was no difference between the oral microbiomes of the control group and the pregnant women with a history of orthodontic appliance use. While the level of TNF-α in the women with orthodontic appliances was higher compared with the control group who had never used orthodontic appliances (p < 0.05), there was no difference in the IL-6 levels. The IL-6 and microbiome profile produced normal results, so the use of orthodontic appliances during pregnancy should be allowed with conditions. Pregnant women with orthodontic appliances must keep the oral cavity clean and their appliances well-maintained to avoid oral problems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number118
JournalDentistry Journal
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022


  • IL-6
  • TNF-α
  • fixed orthodontic
  • inflammation
  • microbiome
  • orthodontics
  • pregnancy


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