Introduction: Despite the slogan “One World, One Hope”, which has been declared in 1996 as a symbol of global commitment to fight against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the tragedy of HIV epidemic among children continue to expand in developing countries, due to combination of factors including, among others, poor socioeconomic conditions and limited access to health facilities. As a child's immune system is immature, HIV infection often worsens at a more progressive rate and presents with various clinical manifestations in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to review recent findings on oral manifestations prevalent in pediatric HIV patients confined to developing countries. Material and methods: Literature search was done in accordance with PRISMA in PubMed databases and included cross-sectional observational research published within the last 10 years (2009-2019) on HIV-infected children living in developing countries, assessing intraoral soft tissue lesions. Data were tabulated and calculated for weighted average prevalence of each specific lesion. Results: A total of 186 articles related to “HIV”, “oral manifestation”, and “children” keywords were reviewed, yet only 12 articles were selected based on location and design of study, inclusion criteria, methodology used, parameters studied, and presentation of data. Majority of the studies were conducted in India (5 articles). Candidiasis was the most common oral manifestations found in HIV-positive children, followed by angular cheilitis, ulcer, and hyperpigmentation, with a mean prevalence of 44.2%, 27.2%, 11.1%, and 6.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Candidiasis remains to be the most common opportunistic infection found in HIV-positive children.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)222-226
Number of pages5
JournalHIV and AIDS Review
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Developing countries
  • HIV-infected children
  • Oral manifestation


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