Pneumonia is a dangerous disease that can lead to death without proper treatment. It is caused by a bacterial infection that leads to the inflammation of the air sacs in human lungs and potentially results in a lung abscess if not properly untreated. Here in this article we introduced a novel mathematical model to investigate the potential impact of Pneumonia treatments on disease transmission dynamics. The model is then validated against data from Jakarta City, Indonesia. In the model, the infection stage in infected individuals is categorized into three stages: the Exposed, Congestion and Hepatization, and the Resolution stage. Mathematical analysis shows that the disease-free equilibrium is always locally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number is less than one and unstable when larger than one. The endemic equilibrium only exists when the basic reproduction number is larger than one. Our proposed model always exhibits a forward bifurcation when the basic reproduction number is equal to one, which indicates local stability of the endemic equilibrium when the basic reproduction number is larger than one but close to one. A global sensitivity analysis shows that the infection parameter is the most influential parameter in determining the size of the total infected individual in the endemic equilibrium point. Furthermore, we also found that the hospitalization and the acceleration of the treatment duration can be used to control the level of endemic size. An optimal control problem was constructed from the earlier model and analyzed using the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. We find that the implementation of treatment in the earlier stage of infected individuals is needed to avoid a more significant outbreak of Pneumonia in a long-term intervention.
- Basic reproduction number
- Jakarta incidence data
- Optimal control
- Time dependent infection rate