The number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases increases annually, and Indonesia has become the country with the fastest HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic spread among the five Southeast Asian countries. Indonesia entered the critical phase of HIV/AIDS infections after 5 out of the 33 provinces, namely, Papua, Jakarta, Bali, West Java, and East Java, reported HIV/AIDS epidemic since 2004. In AIDS pathophysiology and immune-suppression are severe, thus, opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections that cause diarrhea in HIV infection may be fatal. Several studies have suggested that Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli, and Blastocystis hominis are the most common intestinal protozoan parasites categorized as AIDS associated illness. Diarrhea caused by parasites is considerably suspected in the cases of chronic and persistent diarrhea in adults, in an era of increasing HIV/AIDS cases nowadays. The present review highlights the current advances in etiologic agents of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections among countries, epidemiology and prevalence, lifecycle, risk factors, examination methods, and treatment.
- immune suppression
- opportunistic infection