Nutrient pattern analysis of mineral based, simple sugar based, and fat based diets and risk of metabolic syndrome: a comparative nutrient panel

Leila Nikniaz, Trias Mahmudiono, Saade Abdalkareem Jasim, Mahdi Vajdi, Lakshmi Thangavelu, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Although there is growing evidence on the association between nutrient patterns and metabolic risk factors, very little is known about the relationship between nutrient patterns and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to examine the associations of nutrient patterns with MetS among apparently healthy obese adults living in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: Three hundred and forty-seven apparently healthy obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) adults aged 20–50 years were included in this cross-sectional study. Dietary intake of 38 nutrients was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) of 132 food items. Nutrient patterns were determined using factor analysis. The MetS was defined based on the guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). Results: Three major nutrient patterns were extracted: “Mineral based pattern”, “Simple sugar based pattern” and “Fat based pattern”. There was no significant association between nutrient patterns and MetS, in the crude model even after adjusting for confounders. There was a significant difference between quartiles in the mineral based pattern for free mass (FFM), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), large Waist circumference (WC) and Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). In the simple sugar based pattern, we observed a significant association for SBP, DBP, and triglyceride (TG) levels. In addition, the fat based pattern was positively associated with BMI, and weight. Conclusions: We did not observe any significant association of nutrient patterns with the risk of MetS amongst the apparently healthy obese adult's population. Whereas we confirmed the deleterious effect of the simple sugar and fat based patterns on several metabolic risk factors, our findings also showed that the mineral based pattern is related to healthier metabolic factors in an Iranian population. These results should be approved by future studies to recognize any causal relationship between adherence to specific nutrient patterns and MetS.

Original languageEnglish
Article number51
JournalBMC Endocrine Disorders
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Factor analysis
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Nutrient patterns


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